United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
(The Riyadh Guidelines)
[Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 45/112 of 14 December 1990]
I. Fundamental principles
1. The prevention of juvenile delinquency is an essential part of crime prevention in society. By engaging in lawful, socially useful activities and adopting a humanistic orientation towards society and outlook on life, young persons can develop noncriminogenic attitudes.
2. The successful prevention of juvenile delinquency requires efforts on the part of the entire society to ensure the harmonious development of adolescents, with respect for and promotion of their personality from early childhood.
3. For the purposes of the interpretation of the present Guidelines, a childcentred orientation should be pursued. Young persons should have an active role and partnership within society and should not beconsidered as mere objects of socialization or control.
4. In the implementation of the present Guidelines, in accordance with national legal systems, the wellbeing of young persons from their early childhood should be the focus of any preventive programme.
5. The need for and importance of progressive delinquency prevention policies and the systematic study and the elaboration of measures should be recognized. These should avoid criminalizing and penalizing a child for behaviour that does not cause serious damage to the development of the child or harm to others. Such policies and measures should involve:
(a) The provision of opportunities, in particular educational opportunities, to meet the varying needs of young persons and to serve as a supportive framework for safeguarding the personal development of all young persons, particularly those who are demonstrably endangered or at social risk and are in need of special care and protection;
(b) Specialized philosophies and approaches for delinquency prevention, on the basis of laws, processes, institutions, facilities and a service delivery network aimed at reducing the motivation, need and opportunity for, or conditions giving rise to, the commission of infractions;
(c) Official intervention to be pursued primarily in the overall interest of the young person and guided by fairness and equity;
d) Safeguarding the wellbeing, development, rights and interests of all young persons;
(e) Consideration that youthful behaviour or conduct that does not conform to overall social norms and values is often part of the maturation and growth process and tends to disappear spontaneously in most individuals with the transition to adulthood;
(f) Awareness that, in the predominant opinion of experts, labelling a young person as "deviant"', "delinquent" or "predelinquent" often contributes to the development of a consistent pattern of undesirable behaviour by young persons.
6. Communitybased services and programmes should be developed for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, particularly where no agencies have yet been established. Formal agencies of social control should only be utilized as a means of last resort.
II. Scope of the Guidelines
7. The present Guidelines should be interpreted and implemented within the broad framework of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and in the context of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules), as well as other instruments and norms relating to the rights, interests and wellbeing of all children and young persons.
8. The present Guidelines should also be implemented in the context of the economic, social and cultural conditions prevailing in each Member State.
III. General prevention
9. Comprehensive prevention plans should be instituted at every level of Government and include the following:
(a) Indepth analyses of the problem and inventories of programmes, services, facilities and resources available;
(b) Welldefined responsibilities for the qualified agencies, institutions and personnel involved in preventive efforts;
(c) Mechanisms for the appropriate coordination of prevention efforts between governmental and nongovernmental agencies;
(d) Policies, programmes and strategies based on prognostic studies to be continuously monitored and carefully evaluated in the course of implementation;
(e) Methods for effectively reducing the opportunity to commit delinquent acts;
(f) Community involvement through a wide range of services and programmes;
(g) Close interdisciplinary cooperation between national, State, provincial and local governments, with the involvement of the private sector, representative citizens of the community to be served, and labour, childcare, health education, social, law enforcement and judicial agencies in taking concerted action to prevent juvenile delinquency and youth crime;
(h) Youth participation in delinquency prevention policies and processes, including recourse to community resources, youth selfhelp, and victim compensation and assistance programmes;
(i) Specialized personnel at all levels.
IV. Socialization processes
10. Emphasis should be placed on preventive policies facilitating the successful socialization and integration of all children and young persons, in particular through the family, the community, peer groups, schools, vocational training and the world of work, as well as through voluntary organizations. Due respect should be given to the proper personal development of children and young persons, and they should be accepted as full and equal partners in socialization and integration processes.
11. Every society should place a high priority on the needs and wellbeing of the family and of all its members.
12. Since the family is the central unit responsible for the primary socialization of children, governmental and social efforts to preserve the integrity of the family, including the extended family, should be pursued. The society has a responsibility to assist the family in providing care and protection and in ensuring the physical and mental wellbeing of children. Adequate arrangements including daycare should be provided.
13. Governments should establish policies that are conducive to the bringing up of children in stable and settled family environments. Families in need of assistance in the resolution of conditions of instability or conflict should be provided with requisite services.
14. Where a stable and settled family environment is lacking and when community efforts to assist parents in this regard have failed and the extended family cannot fulfil this role, alternative placements, including foster care and adoption, should be considered. Such placements should replicate, to the extent possible, a stable and settled family environment, while, at the same time, establishing a sense of permanency for children, thus avoiding problems associated with "foster drift".
15. Special attention should be given to children of families affected by problems brought about by rapid and uneven economic, social and cultural change, in particular the children of indigenous, migrant and refugee families. As such changes may disrupt the social capacity of the family to secure the traditional rearing and nurturing of children, often as a result of role and culture conflict, innovative and socially constructive modalities for the socialization of children have to be designed.
16. Measures should be taken and programmes developed to provide families with the opportunity to learn about parental roles and obligations as regards child development and child care, promoting positive parentchild relationships, sensitizing parents to the problems of children and young persons and encouraging their involvement in family and communitybased activities.
17. Governments should take measures to promote family cohesion and harmony and to discourage the separation of children from their parents, unless circumstances affecting the welfare and future of the child leave no viable alternative.
18. It is important to emphasize the socialization function of the family and extended family; it is also equally important to recognize the future role, responsibilities, participation and partnership of young persons in society.
19. In ensuring the right of the child to proper socialization, Governments and other agencies should rely on existing social and legal agencies, but, whenever traditional institutions and customs are no longer effective, they should also provide and allow for innovative measures.
20. Governments are under an obligation to make public education accessible to all young persons.
21. Education systems should, in addition to their academic and vocational training activities, devote particular attention to the following:
(a) Teaching of basic values and developing respect for the child's own cultural identity and patterns, for the social values of the country in which the child is living, for civilizations different from the child's own and for human rights and fundamental freedoms;
(b) Promotion and development of the personality, talents and mental and physical abilities of young people to their fullest potential;
(c) Involvement of young persons as active and effective participants in, rather than mere objects of, the educational process;
(d) Undertaking activities that foster a sense of identity with and of belonging to the school and the community;
(e) Encouragement of young persons to understand and respect diverse views and opinions, as well as
cultural and other differences;
(f) Provision of information and guidance regarding vocational training, employment opportunities and career development;
(g) Provision of positive emotional support to young persons and the avoidance of psychological maltreatment;
(h) Avoidance of harsh disciplinary measures, particularly corporal punishment.
22. Educational systems should seek to work together with parents, community organizations and agencies concerned with the activities of young persons.
23. Young persons and their families should be informed about the law and their rights and responsibilities under the law, as well as the universal value system, including United Nations instruments.
24. Educational systems should extend particular care and attention to young persons who are at social risk. Specialized prevention programmes and educational materials, curricula, approaches and tools should be developed and fully utilized.
25. Special attention should be given to comprehensive policies and strategies for the prevention of alcohol, drug and other substance abuse by young persons. Teachers and other professionals should be equipped and trained to prevent and deal with these problems. Information on the use and abuse of drugs, including alcohol, should be made available to the student body.
26. Schools should serve as resource and referral centres for the provision of medical, counselling and other services to young persons, particularly those with special needs and suffering from abuse, neglect, victimization and exploitation.
27. Through a variety of educational programmes, teachers and other adults and the student body should be sensitized to the problems, needs and perceptions of young persons, particularly those belonging to underprivileged, disadvantaged, ethnic or other minority and lowincome groups.
28. School systems should attempt to meet and promote the highest professional and educational standards with respect to curricula, teaching and learning methods and approaches, and the recruitment and training of qualified teachers. Regular monitoring and assessment of performance by the appropriate professional organizations and authorities should be ensured.
29. School systems should plan, develop and implement extracurricular activities of interest to young persons, in cooperation with community groups.
30. Special assistance should be given to children and young persons who find it difficult to comply with attendance codes, and to "dropouts".
31. Schools should promote policies and rules that are fair and just; students should be represented in bodies formulating school policy, including policy on discipline, and decisionmaking.
32. Communitybased services and programmes which respond to the special needs, problems, interests and concerns of young persons and which offer appropriate counselling and guidance to young persons and their families should be developed, or strengthened where they exist.
33. Communities should provide, or strengthen where they exist, a wide range of communitybased support measures for young persons, including community development centres, recreational facilities and services to respond to the special problems of children who are at social risk. In providing these helping measures, respect for individual rights should be ensured.
34. Special facilities should be set up to provide adequate shelter for young persons who are no longer able to live at or who do not have s to live in.
35. A range of services and helping measures should be provided to deal with the difficulties experienced by young persons in the transition to adulthood. Such services should include special programmes for young drug abusers which emphasize care, counselling, assistance and therapyoriented interventions.
36. Voluntary organizations providing services for young persons should be given financial and other support by Governments and other institutions.
37. Youth organizations should be created or strengthened at the local level and given full participatory status in the management of community affairs. These organizations should encourage youth to organize collective and voluntary projects, particularly projects aimed at helping young persons in need of assistance.
38. Government agencies should take special responsibility and provide necessary services for less or street children; information about local facilities, accommodation, employment and other forms and sources of help should be made readily available to young persons.
39. A wide range of recreational facilities and services of particular interest to young persons should be established and made easily accessible to them.
D. Mass media
40. The mass media should be encouraged to ensure that young persons have access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources.
41. The mass media should be encouraged to portray the positive contribution of young persons to society.
42. The mass media should be encouraged to disseminate information on the existence of services, facilities and opportunities for young persons in society.
43. The mass media generally, and the television and film media in particular, should be encouraged to minimize the level of pornography, drugs and violence portrayed and to display violence and exploitation disfavourably, as well as to avoid demeaning and degrading presentations, especially of children, women and interpersonal relations, and to promote egalitarian principles and roles.
44. The mass media should be aware of its extensive social role and responsibility, as well as its influence, in communications relating to youthful drug and alcohol abuse. It should use its power for drug abuse prevention by relaying consistent messages through a balanced approach. Effective drug awareness campaigns at all levels should be promoted.
V. Social policy
45. Government agencies should give high priority to plans and programmes for young persons and should provide sufficient funds and other resources for the effective delivery of services, facilities and staff for adequate medical and mental health care, nutrition, housing and other relevant services, including drug and alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, ensuring that such resources reach and actually benefit young persons.
46. The institutionalization of young persons should be a measure of last resort and for the minimum necessary period, and the best interests of the young person should be of paramount importance. Criteria authorizing formal intervention of this type should be strictly defined and limited to the following situations: (a) where the child or young person has suffered harm that has been inflicted by the parents or guardians; (b) where the child or young person has been sexually, physically or emotionally abused by the parents or guardians; (c) where the child or young person has been neglected, abandoned or exploited by the parents or guardians; (d) where the child or young person is threatened by physical or moral danger due to the behaviour of the parents or guardians; and (e) where a serious physical or psychological danger to the child or young person has manifested itself in his or her own behaviour and neither the parents, the guardians, the juvenile himself or herself nor nonresidential community services can meet the danger by means other than institutionalization.
47. Government agencies should provide young persons with the opportunity of continuing in fulltime education, funded by the State where parents or guardians are unable to support the young persons, and of receiving work experience.
48. Programmes to prevent delinquency should be planned and developed on the basis of reliable, scientific research findings, and periodically monitored, evaluated and adjusted accordingly.
49. Scientific information should be disseminated to the professional community and to the public at large about the sort of behaviour or situation which indicates or may result in physical and psychological victimization, harm and abuse, as well as exploitation, of young persons.
50. Generally, participation in plans and programmes should be voluntary. Young persons themselves should be involved in their formulation, development and implementation.
51. Government should begin or continue to explore, develop and implement policies, measures and strategies within and outside the criminal justice system to prevent domestic violence against and affecting young persons and to ensure fair treatment to these victims of domestic violence.
VI. Legislation and juvenile justice administration
52. Governments should enact and enforce specific laws and procedures to promote and protect the rights and wellbeing of all young persons.
53. Legislation preventing the victimization, abuse, exploitation and the use for criminal activities of children and young persons should be enacted and enforced.
54. No child or young person should be subjected to harsh or degrading correction or punishment measures at, in schools or in any other institutions.
55. Legislation and enforcement aimed at restricting and controlling accessibility of weapons of any sort to children and young persons should be pursued.
56. In order to prevent further stigmatization, victimization and criminalization of young persons, legislation should be enacted to ensure that any conduct not considered an offence or not penalized if committed by an adult is not considered an offence and not penalized if committed by a young person.
57. Consideration should be given to the establishment of an office of ombudsman or similar independent organ, which would ensure that the status, rights and interests of young persons are upheld and that proper referral to available services is made. The ombudsman or other organ designated would also supervise the implementation of the Riyadh Guidelines, the Beijing Rules and the Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty. The ombudsman or other organ would, at regular intervals, publish a report on the progress made and on the difficulties encountered in the implementation of the instrument. Child advocacy services should also be established.
58. Law enforcement and other relevant personnel, of both sexes, should be trained to respond to the special needs of young persons and should be familiar with and use, to the maximum extent possible, programmes and referral possibilities for the diversion of young persons from the justice system.
59. Legislation should be enacted and strictly enforced to protect children and young persons from drug abuse and drug traffickers.
VII. Research, policy development and coordination
60. Efforts should be made and appropriate mechanisms established to promote, on both a multidisciplinary and an intradisciplinary basis, interaction and coordination between economic, social, education and health agencies and services, the justice system, youth, community and development agencies and other relevant institutions.
61. The exchange of information, experience and expertise gained through projects, programmes, practices and initiatives relating to youth crime, delinquency prevention and juvenile justice should be intensified at the national, regional and international levels.
62. Regional and international cooperation on matters of youth crime, delinquency prevention and juvenile justice involving practitioners, experts and decision makers should be further developed and strengthened.
63. Technical and scientific cooperation on practical and policyrelated matters, particularly in training, pilot and demonstration projects, and on specific issues concerning the prevention of youth crime and juvenile delinquency should be strongly supported by all Governments, the United Nations system and other concerned organizations.
64. Collaboration should be encouraged in undertaking scientific research with respect to effective modalities for youth crime and juvenile delinquency prevention and the findings of such research should be widely disseminated and evaluated.
65. Appropriate United Nations bodies, institutes, agencies and offices should pursue close collaboration and coordination on various questions related to children juvenile justice and youth crime and juvenile delinquency prevention.
66. On the basis of the present Guidelines, the United Nations Secretariat, in cooperation with interested institutions, should play an active role in the conduct of research, scientific collaboration, the formulation of policy options and the review and monitoring of their implementation, and should serve as a source of reliable information on effective modalities for delinquency prevention.